Uses and Gratifications Theory
Uses and gratification theory, first identified in the 1940s by Lazarsfeld and Stanton (1944), attempts to explain why mass media is used and the types of gratification that media generates. Gratification is a reward or satisfaction obtained by an individual. The theory relies on the belief that the audience is not merely a group of passive media consumers, but that they play an active role in selecting different media to meet their needs (Infante, Rancer & Womack, 1997; Lowery & De Fleur, 1983). The theory was further developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s when researchers realized that traditional effects theories did not adequately explain how the audience reacts to mass media (Blumler, 1979; Swanson, 1979).
Rubin (1986) states that there are two underlying presumptions of the uses and gratifications model. First, researchers need to understand audience needs and motives for using mass media in order to comprehend the effects of the media. Second, understanding audience consumption patterns will enhance understanding of media effects. Rubin (1986) also believes uses and gratifications research will be best served by continuing to explore and explain the specific links among attitudes, motives, behavior, and communication effects.
The uses and gratifications theory can be applied to the relationship between Public Affairs officers and the media. Mass media is a tool employed to obtain information, entertainment, and communicate a message or story. Public Affairs personnel work daily with the mass media in order to tell the military story. Commanders must believe that the mass media is a useful tool to them, or they will provide less support for Public Affairs. The underlying principle of this theory is that if commanders perceived that there were viable operational uses of Public Affairs and that gratification could result from Public Affairs efforts (either personal gratification or unit/base gratification), then they would be more likely to adopt pro-Public Affairs attitudes. Ideally...future contra torete future break even point future x hoodville future planning during covid future xanax damage future diary future around the corner future and drake future real name future concert future without speciesism award data futurology what is futurology fridays for future contra future progressive future of opposite within future perfect future farmers of america future by billie eilish lyrics future by paramore lyrics futurology twitter future inside the mattress mp3 download future like movies future before nostalgia future around the world futurology vs foresight future reference future projects around the world futurology related words future songs future us before future boy rupee future against dollar future city future career quiz future to completablefuture future as cultural fact future of top shot future up futurology definition deutsch future up the river mp3 download future against all odds lyrics future games future kids ages future questions to ask your boyfriend futurology what is the meaning future at 49ers game future in sight future in spanish rupee future against dollar future like i never left future career quiz future of front-end development 2021 future in french future of futurology futurology manic street preachers lyrics future past present future of front end development 2020 futurology private reddit future before i tell a lie futurology que es future but it's true future me future goals futurology definition dictionary futurology trends futurology in a sentence meaning for futurology since future perfect tense future name future retail future near sentence futurology analysis uk future outside eu difference between future and near future best futurology books future questions futurology farms futurology the new home in 2050 futurology ai future of futurology future z puma future buildings future over your head future in sight future krazy but true lyrics opposite of future oriented future kings around the world future after pandemic futurology methods corning future made of glass video futurology institute future looking into mirror future beyond line of sight future definition futurology research future without shirt future as a verb future goals within company future gohan future without violence future of shiba inu since future perfect continuous future from 8 mile in real life fridays for future contra future goten future tense futurology bedeutung till future tense future from 8 mile before future boy futurology discord via future future up or down future after that the future within our grasp xenoblade future futurology courses future beyond charity future radar future marvel movies future wait_until future days future quiz future within technology futurology vinyl future tense of despite futurology in education pdf futurology university future of via rail futurology language future days lyrics futurology twitter future by future futurology with example future quotes for her future wife future instagram future gif future to present value good futurology podcasts futurology since future tense future for dogecoin future children what future brings us future engineers futuristics vs futurology future value of money future over your head lyrics future but we can prepare for it future kind future olympic sites future telling via fire future job quiz future at computer meme future like ours argument future at the same damn time futurology degree future over 55 communities future relationship between us and china future over your head instrumental future in front of me future via purch future without speciesism award future utility converse future fit break even goals future baby boy names 2021 futurology noun future about me books about futurology into future movie future without poverty antonyms futurology great future in front of you future about technology future like ours future zahir wilburn futurology youtube future bass future you don't even know it lyrics since future perfect continuous futurology in business